Uttar Pradesh General Knowledge (UP GK)
History of UP (Uttar Pradesh)
The history of (UP) Uttar Pradesh is divided into three parts Ancient history, Medieval History, and Modern History. This article gives you a glance at the history of Uttar Pradesh (UP). Let’s discuss it in detail.
Ancient History of UP (Uttar Pradesh)
The pre and post-history of UP (Uttar Pradesh) are gloomy. The discovery of arms and implements of ancient and neo-paleolithic age in excavation at Mirzapur, Sonbhadra, Pratapgarh, and Harappan objects in Alamgirpur in Meerut gives the evidence of ancient historical age.
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Vedic Period History of UP (Uttar Pradesh)
- It is only from the Rigvedic age that some coherent historical evidence is found. It is noted that when Aryans came to India, they colonized Saptasindhu (modern-day Punjab). More prominent of them were Puru, Druhm, Turvasu, Anu, and Yadu. These classes were known as Panchajan. The other important one was “Bharat”.
- The Saptasindhu gradually lost importance and the Aryans were attracted to the fertile plains in between the Ganga river and Saraswati river (lost river of Rajasthan). Here Kuru, Kashi, Panchal, and Kaushal Kingdoms ruled.
Post-Vedic History of UP (Uttar Pradesh)
- The cultural heritage of Uttar Pradesh (UP) was maintained in the epic of Ramayana and Mahabharat. The story of Mahabharat revolves around the “Kuru” dynasty of Hastinapur and the story of Ramayana around the Ikshwaku dynasty.
- Ashram of Valmiki, author of Ramayana, was in Brahmavart (Bithoor in Kanpur) and in Naimisharany (Nimsar in Sitapur) Suta narrated the story of Mahabharat as he heard it from Vyasji.
- Gautam Buddha, Mahavir are great thinkers who brought a revolution to Uttar Pradesh (UP).
Medieval history of Uttar Pradesh (UP)
Delhi Sultanate Period
- In 1206 Qutub-ud-din Aibak ascended the throne of Delhi and founded the Slave dynasty. Khilji’s and Tughlaqs extended the frontiers of the Sultanate.
- The dark period of Uttar Pradesh (UP) is concerned, the sultanate period is known as a dark age in the realm of art.
- The empire of Tughlaq of Delhi had started to disintegrate and in 1394 AD an independent state was established in Jaunpur by Malik Sardar Khwaja Jahan.
- The Syeds and the Lodhi ruled over the Delhi empire from1414 AD to 1526 AD. Behold Lodhi ruled over Jaunpur in 1478 AD.
- Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi, the last of the Lodi rulers at the battle of Panipat in 1526 AD, and occupied Agra. At this time Babar had to face the combined force of Ranasanga near Fatehpur Sikri, but an alliance was made between Babar and the ruler of Raisen resulted in the victory of Babar.
- Humayun, the son of Babar had to face a crushing defeat at the hands of Afghan chief Sher Shah, but Sher Shah himself was killed in 1545 fighting the Chandels near Kalinger fort. Humayun again ascended the throne of Delhi.
- Akbar ascended the throne in 1556 ushering in a new era in Indian history.
- Akbar and for some time Fatehpur Sikri had the privilege of being capital during the regime in between Akbar and Shahjahan.
- Agra continued to be the capital Mughal empire till Shahjahan shifted the capital to Delhi.
- Indian and Mughal styles of architecture reached a climax during the Mughal Period.
The modern history of UP (Uttar Pradesh)
- In 1761, the Mughal emperor Alam made Allahabad his capital and assigned the right to East India Company to rule over Bengal.
- In 1765, the Shuja-ud-daula was defeated by the Britishers in a battle of Jajmau. The Nawab of Awadh agreed to pay 50 lakh rupees as a fine to East India Company.
- In 1774, the rulers of Awadh in alliance with East India Company defeated Rohila (Rohilkhand).
- For some time, Maratha’s made efforts to rule over the Ganga-Yamuna region but their defeat at the IIIrd battle of Panipat in 1761, perished the efforts of Maratha’s.
- During 1754-1775, Shuja-ud-daula ruled over Awadh. During this period the British East India Company came into contact with Awadh rulers.
- Shuja-ud-daula had entered into an alliance with Mir Qasim, the fugitive Nawab of Bengal against the Britishers but in the battle of Buxar Shuja-ud-daula was defeated and was forced to cede Kara and Allahabad to the Britishers.
- In 1856 Dalhousie conquered the Awadh and placed it under a Chief Commissioner. The last Nawab of Awadh Wajid Ali Shah was sent to Calcutta and put on pension. Britisher annexed the Jhansi at the same time.
- In the revolt of 1857, Uttar Pradesh (UP) played a glorious role. In the historic struggle by Rani Laxmi Bai of Jhansi, Begum Hazarat Mahal of Awadh, Bakht Khan, Nana Saheb, Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah, Raja Beni Madhav Singh, Azimullah Khan played the important role.
- The posts of Lt. Governor of North-West provinces and the Chief Commissioner of Awadh were merged In 1877. From then, this large territory was called the North-West provinces of Agra and Awadh.
- The name was again changed in 1902 to the united provinces of Agra and Awadh. It was made a Governor’s province in 1921 and its capital was shifted to Lucknow.
- Its name was changed to United Province in 1937.
History of UP (Uttar Pradesh) after independence
- Its name Uttar Pradesh was given on 12 January 1950.
- The northern hilly districts Uttar Kashi, Rudraprayag, Chamoli, Pithoragarh, Bageshwar, Champawat, Garhwal, Pauri Garhwal, Dehradun, Haridwar, Nainital, and Udham Singh Nagar were separated from Uttar Pradesh on 9 November 2000, and a new state formed is called Uttranchal. Now Uttar Pradesh is having 75 districts.
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