Gandhi Irwin Pact Background
The history of the Pact is related to the rejection of Mahatma Gandhi’s demands and the Civil Disobedience Movement. The rejection of the Mahatma Gandhi demands put forward in Delhi Manifesto led to the Congress Lahore session.
Later Gandhi put forward the 11 demands under the Civil Disobedience movement and 31 January 1930 was given as the ultimatum to reject or accept the demands. Viceroy, Lord Irwin in July 1930 suggested the round table conference.
All members of the Congress Working Committee (CWC) and Gandhi on 25th January 1931were unconditionally released from jail. Later Gandhi with Lord Irwin initiated the discussion and a pact in Delhi was signed, which later known as Gandhi-Irwin Pact or Delhi Pact.
Importance of Delhi Pact
While signing this Pact Gandhi representing the people of India and Viceroy Lord Irwin representing the British Indian government and this pact put the Congress position on an equal footing with the government.
Irwin stands on Pact
Irwin on behalf of the British government agreed on the following demands:
- All political prisoners will be released immediately, who are not convicted of violence.
- Remission of all fines not yet collected.
- All lands will be returned which is not yet sold to any third parties.
- The government servants will be treated Leniently who had resigned from their office.
- For personal consumption in costal-villages, they have the right to make salt.
- Right to peaceful and non-aggressive picketing.
- Withdrawal of emergency ordinances.
The viceroy however turned down two of Gandhi’s demands-
- The public inquiry into police excesses and
- Commutation from a death sentence to a life sentence of Bhagat Singh and his comrade’s.
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Gandhi stands on Pact
- To suspend the Civil Disobedience Movement.
- To participate in the next round table conference.
Result of the Pact
- In the second round table conference, the Indian national congress participated.
- Withdraw of all ordnance by government.
- Release of most the political prisoners.
- Ban on INC revoked.
- Confiscated properties of the Satyagrahis were restored.
FAQ on Pact
Q.) What was the Gandhi-Irwin Pact date?
Ans.) Lord Irwin and Mahatma Gandhi signed the pact on 14th February 1931.
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