The Delhi Sultanate History and Rulers
Slave Dynasty (1206-1290)
This dynasty is also called Mamluk Dynasty. It is called the slave dynasty because three important Sultans of this dynasty were Slaves. Qutbuddin Aibak was a slave of Mohammad Ghori, Iltutmish was a slave of Qutbuddin Aibak and Balban was a Slave of Iltutmish.
Who is the Slave Dynasty Founder?
The Slave dynasty was Founded by Ilbari Turks. Hence it is also known as Ilbari Dynasty.
Some Important Slave Dynasty Rulers
Qutbuddin Aibak (1206-1210)
- Qutbuddin Aibak was the founder of the first Turkish kingdom in northern India. He ruled from Lahore.
- Quwwat-ul-Islam and Adhai Din Ka Jhompra Mosque were built by Qutbuddin Aibak.
- He was a great donator hence he was called “Lakh Baksh”.
- On the name of Sufi saint Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki, he started the construction of Qutub Minar.
- While playing Chaugan (Polo) Qutbuddin Aibak died because of falling.
- Qutbuddin Aibak’s daughter was married to Iltutmish and he was appointed as the governor of the Badaun.
- The real founder of the Delhi Sultanate was Iltutmish.
- He completed the Qutub Minar.
- Silver tanka and copper Jital coin were issued by him.
- Iqtadari System was devised by him and t7he head of iqta was a Muqti.
- Because of illness, he died in 1236.
- He set up an official nobility of slaves known as chahalgani (group of forty).
Raziya Sultan (1236-1240)
- She was the daughter of Iltutmish and made the sultan against chahalgani will.
- Governors of Badaun, Multan, Lahore, and Hansi revolted against her after her accession.
- Altunia the Governor of Bhatinda refused to accept the suzerainty of Raziya and imprisoned Raziya.
- Raziya married Altunia and moved with him to Delhi to capture it by force.
- They returned towards Bhatinda after facing defeat by the Bahram Shaha’s army.
- Their troops deserted them and near Kaithal (Haryana), they were murdered by robbers in 1240.
Ghiyasuddin Balban (1265-1287)
- Balaban was one of the Chahalgani members.
- The power of chahalgani was broken by Balban and he restored the prestige crown.
- Balban assumed the title of Zill-i-llahi (a shadow of God) and Niyabat-i-Khudai (god’s vice-regent on earth).
- He introduced Persian etiquettes like Sijda (prostration before the monarch) and Paibos (kissing the feet of the monarch) as the normal forms of salutation.
- The diwan-i-Arz military department was established by Balban.
- Giyasuddin died in 1287 nominating Kai Khusrau on the throne. But his Nobels set aside Khusrau and put grandson of Balban on the throne.
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Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320)
Some Important Khilji Dynasty Rulers
Jalaluddin Khilji (1290-1296)
- At the age of 70 in 1290, Jalaluddin ascended the throne.
- He was an Iqtadar of an Iqta and served Balban for many years.
- He was a pious Muslim with the desire to be recognized as the Mujahid-fi-Sabillah (fighter in the path of god).
Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316)
- Alauddin original name was Ali Gurshap.
- After killing his uncle Jalaluddin murdered in 1296 he ascended the throne.
- Alauddin’s army led by his slave Malik Kafur.
- Somnath temple which was rebuilt in the 12th century again demolished by Alauddin Khilji.
- He was the first Sultan of Delhi who lay the foundation of a permanent standing army.
- The market control department was established under a minister called Diwan-i-Riyasat.
- Hindus were required to pay the Jizya.
- He declared himself as Sikandar-i-Sani that is second Alexander.
- Alauddin was a great patron of learning and fine arts, Amir Khusro and Amir Hasan resided at his court.
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Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414)
Some Important Tughlaq Dynasty Rulers
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-1325)
- Ghiyasuddin served as Alauddin’s muqti in Dipalpur (Punjab).
- He sent two expeditions in 1321 and 1323 against the ruler of Warangal.
- The credit of improving the system of communication that is the postal system is given to Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.
- Early in his reign, he laid the foundation of a big palace fort called Tuqhlaqabad.
- He died in 1326 when a pavilion was fell upon him.
Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1325-1351)
- Jauna Khan became Muhammad Bin Tughlaq.
- Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was the most learned Sultan of Delhi but lacked practical judgment.
- He created the department of agriculture which was called Diwan-i-Kohi.
- Maximum numbers of coins were issued by him among all Delhi Sultans. Hence he was called as ‘prince of moneyers’.
- During the reign of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, Moroccan traveler Ibn Batuta visited Delhi.
Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351-1388)
- Firoz Shah was a cousin of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq.
- He declared his state a Sunni Islamic state under the influence of clergy.
- Jizya was made a separate tax and was imposed on Brahmins for the first time in the history of the Sultanate.
- Firozabad, Hissar Firoza, Juanpur, Ferozpur, Fatehabad were the towns founded by him.
- A separate department of slaves Diwan-i-Bandagan was established by him.
- The charity bureau was established by him by the name of Diwani-i-Khairat.
- He also established the charitable hospital Dar-ul-Shifa.
- Firoz wrote an autobiography called as Futuhat-i-Firozshahi.
- He made the efforts to decode the script of Ashokan Pillars.
- Died in 1388.
Sayyid Dynasty (1414-1451)
Important Sayyid Dynasty Ruler
Khizr Khan (1414-1421)
- Khizr Khan defeated Daulat Khan and became ruler of Delhi in 1414.
- He was the first and most able ruler of the Sayyid Dynasty.
- He claimed to be the descendant of Prophet Muhammad.
- The title of Sultan was not assumed by him but contented himself with that of Rayat-i-Ala.
- Died in 1421.
Lodi Dynasty (1451-1526)
Important Lodi Dynasty Rulers
Bahlol Lodi (1451-1489)
- The founder of the Lodi dynasty was Bahlol Lodi.
- His main achievement was the restoration of a part of the credit and prestige of the Delhi kingdom.
- He conquest and annexed the kingdom of Jaunpur.
- He started coins called Bahloli.
Sikander Lodi (1489-1517)
- Nizam Khan, son of Bahlol Lodi came to the throne in 1489 and assumed the title of Sikander Shah Lodi.
- The city of Agra was founded by Sikander Lodi in 1504 and transferred the capital from Delhi to Agra.
- Jwalamukhi temple was demolished by him and he charged Jaziya.
- He wrote a book called Lahjat-i-Sikandari.
- Sikander Lodi died of illness in 1517.
Ibrahim Lodi (1517-1526)
- He assumed the title, Ibrahim Shah.
- Rana Sanga of Mewar was defeated by him.
- Ibrahim Lodi was defeated and killed by Babur in the First battle of Panipat on 21st April 1526.
Delhi Sultanate monuments, art, and architecture
The list of important art and architecture of the Delhi sultanate are given below:
Built by Delhi sultanate Ruler
|Quwwat-ul-Islam and Adhai Din ka Jhompra Mosque||
Qutbuddin Aibak and Iltutmish
|Alai Darwaza, Siri fort, and Hazar Situn||
|Tughlaqabad fort completed by||
Muhammad bin Tughlaq
|Atala Mosque completed by||
|Lal Darwaza Mosque||
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