About UPSC Mains Exam
A detailed analysis of the UPSC Mains Syllabus is required because the candidates who qualify for the UPSC CSE (IAS) Prelims will give the IAS Mains exam. The UPSC CSE (IAS) Prelims does not count in making the merit list of the final selected candidates, so it is important for the aspirant to prepare for the UPSC CSE (IAS) Mains in-depth and very well. Because the rank and the cadre with the candidate will get will be decided by the marks of the Mains Examination which is of total 1750 marks and interview marks which are of total 275 marks.
The UPSC CSE (IAS) mains exam has nine paper which all are of a subjective nature. Out of these nine paper, Paper A which is of any of the Indian languages which the candidate has to choose to form the 8th schedule of the Constitution of India and Paper B which is of English, the paper A and paper B both are 300 marks but are of qualifying nature the candidate has to clear the cut-off or get the minimum marks of 33% in paper A and B.
The other papers are an Essay paper, four papers on General Studies and two option paper which the candidate has to choose while filling the form.
The detailed analysis of IAS Mains paper is given below:
|S.NO||Name of Paper||Maximum Marks|
|A||The candidate has to select one Indian language from the 8th schedule of the Constitution||300 (Qualifying only)|
|B||English||300 (Qualifying only)|
|2.||General Studies I||250|
|3.||General Studies II||250|
|4.||General Studies III||250|
|5.||General Studies IV||250|
|6.||Optional Subject Paper I||250|
|7.||Optional Subject Paper II||250|
|CSE (IAS) Mains Total||1750|
|CSE (IAS) Interview (Personality Test)||275|
Nature and Standard of UPSC CSE (IAS) Mains Exam
The IAS Mains exam is designed in such a way that tests the candidate depth of understanding of the subjects and intellectual and analytical traits of the aspirants.
The General Studies (Paper II to Paper V) standard and nature is such that any educated person without any specialized knowledge will be able to answer the questions. The subjects asked the UPSC CSE (IAS) Mains Exam are of General awareness these subjects help the candidates in his/her career of civil services.
The nature and the standard of the Optional subject papers (Paper VI and Paper VII) are that the questions asked are of honour degree level that is lower than the master’s degree but higher than the bachelor’s degree. The standard of optional subject’s candidates of Medical Science, Engineering, and Law are of a bachelor degree.
UPSC Mains Syllabus
Let’s discuss the detailed UPSC Mains Syllabus/CSE (IAS) Mains Syllabus:
Syllabus of Paper A and B of Indian Language and English of UPSC IAS
The nature of these paper is to test the aspirant skill to understand and express the ideas correctly and clearly in Indian Language and English. The standard of the papers will be of the matriculation level.
The pattern of the question paper is as follows:
- Comprehension of given passages.
- Precis Writing.
- Usage and Vocabulary.
- Short Essays
- comprehension of given passages.
- Precis Writing.
- Usage and Vocabulary.
- Short Essays.
- Translation from Indian Language to English and vice-versa.
UPSC Mains Syllabus of Paper-I, Essay
The UPSC does not mention the topics for the essay paper but the candidates have to write the essays on various topics like Current Affairs, Public Administration, Philosophy, and International Scenario. The candidates are expected to keep their ideas close to the subject of the essay and write precisely.
Important Links for UPSC Exams
|UPSC IAS Prelims, Mains & Interview Cut Off|
|UPSC CSE Notification | IAS Exam Eligibility & Pattern|
UPSC Mains Syllabus for Paper-II General Studies (I)
Topics: Indian Culture and Heritage, Society, History and Geography of the World.
- Indian culture, Indian Architecture, Indian literature and Art Forms of ancient and modern times.
- Modern Indian history from the middle of the 18th century till today.
- Important personalities, events, issues of modern history.
- The Freedom Struggle — important contributions/contributors.
- Post-independence reorganization and consolidation within India.
- World History will include events from the 18th century such as:
- Industrial revolution.
- World wars.
- Redraw of national boundaries.
- Political philosophies like capitalism, communism, socialism etc.— their effect and forms on society.
- Salient features of Indian Society.
- Diversity of India.
- Role of women and women’s organization.
- Population and associated issues their problems and their remedies, issues like
- Developmental issues.
- Effects of globalization on Indian society.
- Social empowerment.
- Secularism and regionalism.
- Salient features of the world’s physical geography.
- Natural resources distributed across the world (including the Indian sub-continent and South Asia).
- Responsible factor for the tertiary sector, secondary sector, and primary sector industries location in India and of the world.
- Important Geophysical phenomena such as:
- Volcanic activity.
- Cyclone etc.
- Geographical location and their features -changes in critical geographical features (like ice-caps and water-bodies) and in fauna and flora and the effects of such changes.
UPSC Mains Syllabus of Paper III, General Studies (II)
Topics: Social Justice, Governance, International relations, Constitution, and Polity.
- Indian Constitution—historical background, features, evolution, significant provisions, amendments, and basic structure.
- State government and the Union government (Functions and Responsibilities).
- Challenges and issues to the federal structure.
- Local levels of government (devolution of powers and finances).
- Challenges in the local level of government.
- Power separation between various organs.
- Institutions and Dispute redressal mechanisms for various organs.
- Comparison between the Indian constitutional scheme with that of the constitution of the other countries.
- Parliament and State legislatures—
- Conduct of business
- Powers & privileges
- Issues arising out of these
- Organization, Structure, and functioning of the Judiciary and the Executive—
- Departments and Ministries of the Government.
- pressure groups
- Role of formal/informal associations in the Polity.
- Representation of People’s Act (salient features).
- Appointment to various Constitutional posts.
- Functions, powers and responsibilities of different Constitutional Bodies.
- Statutory Bodies.
- Regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
- Government interventions and policies for development.
- Issues arising out of the implementation and design of government policies.
- Development industry and the developmental process.
- The role of:
- Various groups
- Institutional and other stakeholders.
- Centre and States government welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population.
- laws, Mechanisms, Bodies, and Institutions constituted for the betterment and protection of the vulnerable sections.
- Social Sector management and development related issues.
- Human Resources, Education, and Health Services.
- Issues relating to hunger and poverty.
- Important aspects feature of:
- Transparency and accountability
- e-governance (models, applications, successes, potential and limitations).
- Citizens charters.
- Role of civil services in a democracy.
- Relation between India and its neighbourhood.
- Regional, Bilateral, and Global groupings and agreements affecting India’s interest or involving India.
- On India’s interests the effect of politics and policies of developing countries and developed countries.
- Indian diaspora.
- Important International agencies and institutions (their mandate, fora and their structure).
UPSC Paper-IV General Studies (III) Syllabus
Topics: Economic Development, Technology, Biodiversity, Security, Disaster Management and Environment.
- Indian Economy and issues relating to:
- Development and employment.
- Inclusive growth and issues relating to it.
- Government Budgeting.
- Major crops-cropping patterns of India, – different types of irrigation and storage systems, marketing and transport of agricultural produce and related constraints and issues.
- e-technology in agriculture and in the aid of farmers.
- Issues related to minimum support prices (MSP), direct and indirect farm subsidies.
- Public Distribution System (PDS)- functioning, objectives, revamping, and limitations.
- Issues of food security and buffer stocks.
- Technology missions and economics of animal-rearing.
- Scope and significance of food processing related industries in India (their location, downstream and upstream requirements and supply chain management).
- Land reforms in India.
- Effects of liberalization on the Indian economy.
- The effects of the changes in industrial policy on industrial growth.
- Infrastructure: Ports, Energy, Roads, Railways, Airports, etc.
- Investment models.
- Science and technology- their applications and developments of new technology and their effects in everyday life.
- Science & technology achievements of India.
- Developing new technology and indigenization of technology.
- Basic awareness in the fields of:
- Issues relating to intellectual property rights.
- Environmental pollution and degradation.
- Conservation of environment.
- Environmental impact assessment (EIA).
- Disaster and disaster management.
- Linkages between the spread of extremism and development.
- Role of non-state actors and external state in creating internal security challenges.
- Challenges to internal security such as:
- Communication networks.
- Challenges of Social networking sites and media in internal security.
- Basics of cybersecurity.
- Money laundering.
- Security challenges in border areas and their management – linkages of terrorism with organized crime.
- Various Security agencies and forces and their role and mandate.
UPSC Paper V General Studies (IV) Syllabus
Topics: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude
The paper V of General Studies (IV) tests the mindset and attitude of the candidates and approach of the candidate to problems relating to the integrity, probity in public life and candidate approach for solving problems to different issues and the candidates face the conflicts while dealing with the society.
The following topics will be covered:
Ethics and Human Interface:
- Determinants, Essence, and Consequences of Ethics in-human actions.
- Dimensions of ethics.
- Ethics – in public and private relationships.
- Human Values -lessons from the teachings and lives of reformers, great leaders, and administrators.
- Educational institutions (schools and colleges), family, and society role in inculcating values.
- Content, Function, and Structure.
- Its relation and influence with behaviour and thought.
- Political and moral attitudes.
- Persuasion and Social Influence.
- Foundational values Aptitude for Civil Service.
- Dedication to public service.
- Compassion towards the weaker sections.
- Emotional intelligence concepts, and their application and their utilities in governance and administration.
Philosophers and moral thinkers:
- Contributions of philosophers and moral thinkers from the world and India.
Ethics and Civil/Public service values in Public Administration:
- Status and problems
- Dilemmas and ethical concerns in government institutions and private institutions.
- Conscience, Rules, Regulations, and Laws as sources of ethical guidance.
- Accountability and Ethical governance.
- In governance strengthening of the moral values and ethical values.
- Ethical issues relating to international relations and funding.
- Corporate governance.
Probity in Governance:
- Concept of public service.
- The philosophical basis of probity and governance.
- Transparency and Information sharing in government.
- Right to Information (RTI).
- Codes of Ethics.
- Codes of Conduct.
- Citizen’s Charters.
- Work culture.
- Quality of service delivery.
- Utilization of public funds.
- Challenges of corruption.
Case Studies on the above issues.
UPSC Paper VI & VII Optional Syllabus
The candidate has to an optional subject which has two objective paper that is paper VI and Paper VII. The nature of the optional subject is to check the specialization of the subject and the depth of knowledge of the candidate. The candidate is free to choose his/her optional subject other than his/her graduation subjects. The candidate has to choose any of the following subjects as optional.
A list of UPSC CSE (IAS) optional subject is given below:
|3.||Commerce and Accountancy|
|10.||Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science|
|16.||Political Science and International Relations|
See Here: UPSC CSE (IAS) Prelims Syllabus
Read Here: About UPSC CDS Exam